History of GBDC
1. On 20th August, 1975, the Government of Ghana approved the establishment of the Ghana National Book Development Council as an operating agency under the Ministry of Education and Culture. The official notice about the setting up of the Council which was published in Gazette No. 65 of 5th December, 1975, reads as follows:
"It is announced for the information of the general public that Ghana National Book Development Council has been estab¬lished as an operating agency under the Ministry of Education and Culture”.
2. The membership of this Council is as follows:
—Representative of Ministry of Education and Culture
—Representative of University of Ghana
—Representative of Ghana Publishers Association
—Representative of Ghana Federation of Master Printers
—Representative of Ghana Booksellers Association
—Representative of Ghana Library Services
—Representative of Ministry of Information
—Representative of Ghana National Commission for UNESCO
—Representative of Ministry of Trade and Tourism
—Representative of Ministry of Industries
—Representative of Ghana Publishing Corporation
—Representative of Bank of Ghana
—Representative of Ministry of Justice
—Representative of Ghana Journalists Association
—Representative of Ghana Education Service
—Representative of Bureau of Ghana Languages
—Representative of Ghana Association of Writers
—Representative of Ghana Library Association
—Representative of University of Science and Technology, Kumasi
—Representative of National Association of Writers
—Representative of Department of Social Welfare and Com¬munity Development
—Representative of University of Cape Coast
—Representative of Ministry of Economic Planning
—Representative of Ministry of Finance
Mr. S. A. A. Djoleto, Assistant Director, Ghana Education Service, is the Executive Director of the Council.
3. The Council has an Executive Board the membership of which is as follows: ‑
—Representative of Ministry of Education and Culture
--Representative of University of Ghana, Legon -Representative of Ghana Publishers Association
--Representative of Ghana Federation of Master Printers
—Representative of Ghana Booksellers Association
—Representative of Ghana Library Services
—Representative of Ministry of Information
—Representative of Ghana National Commission for UNESCO
—Representative of Trade and Tourism.
4. The Council shall meet once a year to make recommendations for broad policies and approve programmes of the Executive Board. Any other meetings shall receive the express prior approval of the Commissioner for Education and Culture.
5. The Executive Board of the Council shall meet at least once a month to carry out the functions of the Council.
6. The functions of the Council shall be
(1) To act as a national agency for concerted planning and co-ordination and management of various activities of all groups, bodies or individuals, both public and private, concerned with book development.
(2) To arrange to carry out a comprehensive study and research programme on all problems essential for the development of the book industry and for provision of an effective service to the reading public.
(3) To encourage indigenous authorship and ensure the provision of opportunities for local writers, publishers, translators and printers to produce books both in the national official language and in the vernaculars.
(4) To ensure the establishment of suitable machinery for the promotion of the reading habit among all age groups particularly among children.
(5) To ensure the development of the library system in the country with special regard to school libraries and rural and village libraries.
(6) To ensure the development of the infrastructure of the book industry, in particular, through the establishment, support and formation of professional associations (e.g. for writers, illustrators and designers, publishers, printers, booksellers and librarians).
(7) To promote, assist, and where necessary, co-ordinate plans for concerted action on the training of personnel for the book professions or such other important questions.
(8) To make recommendations for national book development policies.
(9) Generally to undertake or promote such activities as will ensure the full development of books.
7. Mr. S. A. A. Djoleto, Assistant Director, Ghana Education Service, is the Executive Director."
8. Change of Name
The name Ghana National Book Development Council was later changed to Ghana Book Development Council—by a decision of the Executive Board which was subsequently endorsed by the Council and the Government—because “National” in the original name was considered superfluous and therefore dispensable.
The Ghana Book Development Council (GBDC) was inaugurated on 2nd April, 1976, by the Commissioner for Education and Culture, Mr. Ellison Owusu-Fordwuoh, at the Kwame Nkrumah Conference Centre; however, in view of difficulties in acquiring suitable office accommodation, the Council started full operations in January 1977. Its present offices are located on the third floor of the building which houses the Accra Workers, College and the Ghana Institute of Languages. The current premises are temporary: it is hoped that in due course the Council will move into its permanent buildings.
B. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
1. The Ghana Book Development Council comprises three parts, namely: the Council, the Executive Board and the Secretariat.
1.1 Council and Executive Board
Twenty-seven members serve on the Council of the Ghana Book Development Council. Out of this number, fifteen serve on the Executive Board also. The Council and Executive Board members are as follows:-
(1) Mr. C. M. O. Math —Chairman, Council/Executive Board
(2) Lt.-Col. P. R. Nyaku (rtd.) —Vice-Chairman, Council/Executive Board
(3) Mr. S. A. A. Djoleto —Member, Council/Executive Board (Executive Director, GBDC).
(4) Mr. L. W. Fifi Hesse —Member, Council/Executive Board (Ministry of Education).
(5) Mr. N. K. Adzakey —Member, Council/Executive Board (Pub. Association)
(6) Prof. S. I. A. Kotei —Member, Council/Executive Board (University of Ghana)
(7) Mr. B. K. Ofori —Member, Council/Executive Board (Federation of Master Printers).
(8) Nana Kwaku Mensah —Member, Council/Executive Board (Ghana Booksellers Association).
(9) Mr. A. G. T. Ofori —Member, Council/Executive Board (Ghana Library Services).
(10) Mr. E. B. Odoi Anim —Member, Council/Executive Board (Ministry of Information).
(I1) Mrs. Euphemia Asmah —Member, Council/Executive Board (Ghana National Commission for UNESCO).
(12) Mr. M. E. Armah —Member, Council/Executive Board (Ministry of Trade and Tourism).
(13) Mr. A. F. Menka —Member, Council/Executive Board (Ghana Education Service).
(14) Prof. Nii Amon Kotei —Member, Council/Executive Board (University of Science and Technology).
(15) Dr. E. O. Apronti —Member, Council/Executive Board (National Association of Writers).
(16) Mrs. Eva Forson —Member, Council (Ministry of Industries)
(17) Mr. P. F. A. Danquah —Member, Council (Ghana Publishing Corporation)
(18) Mr. E. K. Neequaye —Member, Council (Bank of Ghana
(19) Mr. J. Bediako-Asare —Member, Council (Ghana Journalists Association)
(20) Mr. E. A. Ansah —Member, Council (Ministry of Justice)
(21) Mr. F. S. Konu —Member, Council (Bureau of Ghana Languages)
(22) Mr. Atukwei Okai —Member, Council (Ghana Association of Writers)
(23) Mr. A. N. de Heer —Member, Council (Ghana Library Association)
(24) Mrs. Janet Tay —Member, Council (Department Community Development).
(25) Dr. V. S. Boafo —Member, Council (University of Cape Coast)
(26) Mr. E. O. Odotei —Member, Council (Ministry of Economic Planning)
(27) Mr. M. B. Keelson —Member, Council (Ministry of Finance).
1. Ghana Book Publishers Association
1.1 The Ghana Book Development Council conducted a research into the organisation and activities of the Ghana Book Publishers Association to ascertain its effectiveness as an important component of the Ghana Book Industry. The research revealed much that was lacking and the Secretariat made recommendations to the Executive Board to remedy the situation. These recommendations were accepted. Under the Chairmanship of the Ghana Book Development Council's Chairman, the Ghana Book Publishers Association held a meeting at the Conference Room of the GBDC Secretariat on 14th December, 1977, with a view to reactivating the Association. The meeting was successful and the reorganisation of Association is under way. The publishers and organisations that were represented at the meeting were:
(i) Afram Publications (Ghana) Ltd.
(ii) Africa Christian Press
(iii) Benibengor Book Agency ('iv) Bureau of Ghana Languages
(v) Cambridge University Press
(vi) Curriculum Research and Development Division (Ministry of Education)
(vii) Ghana Publishing Corporation (Publishing Division)
(viii) Ghana Universities Press
(ix) Macmillan Education
(x) Methodist Book Depot
(xi) Monim Bookland
(xii) Oxford University Press
(xiii) Sedco Publishing
(xiv) Waterville Publishin0ouse.
1.2 Following that meeting the above-named Publishers held a general meeting at which a committee of seven was appointed to draft a constitution for the revived Association. Members of the committee were:
(i) J. Benibengor Blay (Benibengor Book Agency) - Chairman
(ii) C. Kwami Segbawu (Sedco Publishing) - Vice-Chairman
(iii) Kwesi Sam-Woode (Afram. Publications) - Secretary
(iv) Mrs. Mercy Owusu Nimoh (Monim Bookland) - Treasurer
(v) T. Q. Amarh (Macmillan Education) - Member
(vi) Mark Botsio (Ringway Press) - Member
(vii) I. Dankyi-Mensah (Ghana Publishing Corporation) - Member.
The Committee has since submitted a draft Constitution to members for their study, and, upon approval by the General Meeting, the Ghana Book Publishers Association will be formally launched.
1.3 So far the Secretariat of the Ghana Book Development Council has been providing the Association with secretarial assistance.
2. Ghana Federation of Master Printers
2.1 The Federation of Master Printers held three meetings during the course of the year. At one of these meetings members were addressed by a top official of the Ghana National Procurement Agency on the paper situation in the country and on the problem about importation.
2.2 The Ghana Book Development Council researched into the resources and operations of a selected number of printing presses in order to assess their capabilities as well as their problems and make recommendations to the Government so that these presses could be profitably supported and guided into the production of all textbooks and books for general readership required at least in first cycle educational institutions in Ghana. The premises of thirteen (13) presses spread all over the country were inspected and interviews held with their proprietors or management. Generally, the problems of these presses were identical: inadequate allocation of import licence, difficulty in establishing letters of credit, lack of modern printing machines and equipment, and materials, especially paper, for the efficient running of the presses. Added to these problems are the inability of the Ghana National Procurement Agency—to which members of the Fed erati3n of Master Printers submitted import licences as the sole body authorised by the Government to play such a role—to import paper and allied materials for the printers, and the award of all Government printing contracts either to the Ghana Publishing Corporation or to printers outside Ghana.
2.3 A full report on these presses was prepared and the Ghana Book Development Council began systematically to help solve the problems.
3. Ghana Booksellers Association
3.1. A research conducted by the GBDC into the affairs of this Association unearthed a number of problems. The GBDC therefore did some preparatory work and invited the Executive Council of the Booksellers through their representative on the Council to a meeting at the GBDC Secretariat. Following addresses delivered by the Chairman and the Executive Director of the GBDC at this meeting, the Executive Council of the Booksellers met later to discuss pertinent issues raised in the two addresses and took the following decisions:
(i) That the GBDC recommend to the Government to place books on Open General Licence to ensure the availability of books at reasonable prices.
(ii) That the Ghana Booksellers Association verify the allegation that the British Council in Ghana was engaged in a special scheme for the sale and distribution of books in the country before taking a decision on the matter,
(iii) That the GBDC be commended for its painstaking efforts to place the sale of recommended textbooks in the hands of booksellers instead of by any other means.
(iv) That a nation-wide membership drive be undertaken by the Association to enhance the book trade in Ghana.
3.2. The meeting appointed a committee of five under the leadership of Mr. S. Brako (Ghana Book Suppliers Ltd.) to meet the Executive Board of the GBDC to discuss a proposed course for middle and top management bookselling personnel. The course was expected to be held in June, 1978, by the GBDC in conjunction with the Ghana Booksellers Association and the British Publishers Association. Other members of the committee were Nana Kwaku Mensah (Queensway Bookshop), Mr. Albert Ott (Presbyterian Book Depot), Mr. H. S. Simpson (Simpson Bookshop) and Mr. Mark Botsio (Ghana Book Suppliers Ltd.)
3.1 Mr. Robert Martin, Bookseller Officer of the British Publishers Association, was expected to be the Director of Studies for the Bookselling Course.
4. The Ghana Book Designers and Illustrators Association
4.1. This Association was inaugurated at the Accra Community Centre on 8th November, 1977, by the Vice-Chairman of the Ghana Book Development Council on behalf of the Chairman. The inauguration was followed by the first meeting of the association at which its executive members were elected. A draft constitution has since been drawn up for approval by the Association.
5. Ghana Library Association
5.4 Since its inception in 1961, the Ghana Library Association has contributed to the education and welfare of its members, and has also concerned itself with the development of the book trade and the promotion of libraries and leading through seminars, conferences and workshops and extensive public relations work. It has a journal which is published twice a year.
6. The Writers' Associations
6.1 The continued existence of two writers associations—the National Association of Writers (NAW) and the Ghana Association of Writers (GAW)—notwithstanding repeated appeals to them to merge, was, and still remains, a matter of concern to the GBDC. The two Associations were, however, represented on the Executive Board of the GBDC by the President of the NAW, Dr. E. O. Apronti. Both he and his GAW counterpart, Mr. Atukwei Okai, had representation on the Council of the GBDC. Efforts are still being made to have the two Associations merged.
6.2 The National Association of Writers
The activities of the National Association of Writers (NAW) in 1977 centred around seminars, workshops and literary evenings at both District and Regional levels. The main objective was to offer guidance and help to as many members as possible to enable them use local material and experience in their literary work.
6.3 Workshops and seminars were held in the Eastern, Western, Brong-Ahafo and Greater Accra Regions after which some districts in the Eastern Region were selected for intensive workshops for writers. Established writers and poets were invited to lead discussions which covered all aspects of writing in both English and Ghanaian languages. The Seminars and workshops for creative writing were held at week-ends, usually, to coincide with District Festivals of Arts.
6.4 The Ghana office of the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation organised a Workshop on script writing for TV plays and Feature Films from 5th December, 1977 to 27th January, 1978. Five members of the Association were nominated to participate in the project which included lectures, seminars and practices of script writing.
6.5 In 1975 a Yugoslav Publishing House, BAGDALA, channelled a request through the Ghana National Commission for UNESCO for a collection of modern Ghanaian poems from the National Association of Writers for publication in a series of anthologies from non-aligned countries. The collection and re-arrangement of the poems was completed in October, 1977, and the manuscript was despatched to Yugoslavia through the Yugoslav Embassy in Ghana.
6.6 The Association presented a programme: 'An Evening with the Critics' on 8th November, 1977, at the British Council Hall as part of the activities of the GBDC National Book Week. Speakers at the function—the aim of which was to explain to the general public the criteria for the award of the Valco Literary Prize—included Dr. E. O. Apronti and Dr. A. Tekpetey both members of the Valco Panel of Judges. Prof. Joe de Graft, Head of the School of Dance and Drama, Legon, presided.
6.7 On the recommendation of the Association the Authorship-Development Fund gave aid in cash ranging from 02,30 to ¢500 each to an appreciable number of writers who had applied for financial assistance through the NNW. The aid has been a source of great inspiration to the beneficiaries.
6.8 The major problems which adversely affected the smooth operation of the Association were:
(i) Lack of co-operation between the Association and 'the Executive of the Ghana Association of Writers (GAW).
(ii) Inadequate staff for the Secretariat.
(iii) Non-availability of facilities and equipment for recording, activities and programmes of the Association.
(iv) Lack of adequate means of publicity for announcing activities and programmes.
7 GBDC Emblem
7.1 In July, 1977, the Ghana Book Development Council wrote to four institutions requesting them to submit sketch designs for consideration in a GBDC emblem competition. The institutions *ere the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi; the Specialist Training College, Winneba; the Bureau of Ghana Languages, Accra; and the Curriculum Research and Development D. islon (CRDD) of the Ghana Education Service. Prospective contestants were briefed to make their designs reflect Ghana's cultural heritage and the raison d'dtre of the Ghana Book Development Council.
7.2 All told, 35 sketch designs were received from three of the above-named institutions. Out of the total 28 came from the U.S.T.
7.3 At an Executive Board meeting held on 3rd November, 1977, one design was adopted as the GBDC Emblem, subject to some modifications. The adopted emblem depicts a Ghanaian child reading a book in earnest. On the front cover of this book is an 'Adinkra' design known in Twi as `Matemasie' (meaning literally 'I have heard and kept') symbolising the book as the repository of knowledge; on the back cover is a black star signifying hope that today's child will grow into an intellectually developed adult tomorrow with the help of the book.
7.4 The winner of the competition, Mr. J. W. A. Appiah of U.S.T., received a cash prize of ¢500 (five hundred cedis). The consolation prizes of JZ200 and (Z 100 went to Mr. Hubert Abbey (U.S.T.) and Mr. A. C. Quist (U.S.T.) respectively.
8. Children's Literature Foundation (CLF)
8.1 Moves were initiated by the Secretariat for the formation of a Children's Literature Foundation. The Executive Board appointed a committee to draw up proposals for the setting up of the Foundation. The proposals, as amended and approved by the Executive Board, are as follows:—
The name of the organisation shall be the Children's Literature Foundation (CLF).
(b) Governing Body
The Children's Literature Foundation shall have a Board of Directors of not fewer than seven members.
The Foundation shall have working committees with the approval of its Board of Directors: e.g.
(i) Fundraising and Public Relations,
(ii) Publication and Book Reviewing.
The Foundation shall be a voluntary, non-profit-making, autonomous organisation related to the Ghana Book Development Council.
Membership of the Foundation shall comprise educators, parents, authors, reviewers, librarians and all concerned individuals and organisations.
(f) Aims and Objectives
(i) To promote the production and use of good quality books for children and young peoples.
(ii) To explore and tap sources of funding for the production of such books.
The functions of the Foundation shall include:
(i) Selection of manuscripts and sponsoring the production of the books by publishing houses for distribution at reasonable prices;
(ii) Carrying out of surveys on the shortcomings of books for Ghanaian children and young people; compiling and publishing of these findings in order to assist writers, book illustrators and designers and publishers;
(iii) Encouraging the review of books produced for Ghanaian children and young people;
(iv) Organisation of seminars and workshops on various aspects of children's books;
(v) Establishing an annual book award and giving maximum publicity to outstanding books;
(vi) Disseminating information abroad about the best children's books produced in Ghana;
(vii) Encouraging private interests in the establishment of library facilities in co-operation with the public system;
(viii) Co-operation in every possible way with the Ghana Library Board;
(ix) Co-operation with various institutions working on children's literature, e.g. International Board of
Books for Young People (IBBY), UNESCO, UNICEF, the International Institute of Research on -Folk and Children's Literature (Vienna);
(x) Encouraging the publication of children's newspapers, magazines, etc.
The Foundation's finances shall be derived from:
(i) Grants, loans, donations and financial aid from public and private sources;
(ii) Fund-raising activities.
E. OTHER ACTIVITIES
1. GBDC-GNAT-CTF Book Project
1.1 The Ghana Book Development Council teamed up with the Ghana National Association of Teachers (GNAT) and the Canadian Teachers Federation (CTF) to organise a workshop for 90 selected teachers from all over the country to write books for schools in Ghana. The Secretariat helped in the selection of the teacher-authors and took part in editing the thirty-seven manuscripts that finally emerged. It advised on the selection of a Ghanaian publishing house to publish the books, and continues to provide consultancy and finance if necessary.
2. National Book Week
2.1 A most significant undertaking by the Ghana Book Development Council since its operations began was the organisation of the first ever National Book Week which was held from 7th to 11th November, 1977. Activities for the Week whose theme was “Help Develop Books " included a book exhibition, a colloquium, an open forum, poetry recital, an essay competition and the award of prizes to selected Ghanaian writers of the pre-independence period.
2.2 The Book Week was launched on GBC-TV by the Commissioner for Education and Culture, Mr. E. Owusu Fordwuoh, on 6th November, 1977. In his launching speech the Commissioner said among other things: " Ghana has reached a stage in her development where she needs an institution for the promotion and use of books because without a conscious effort to promote the production any use of books, the difficulties which at present plague the education practice, the creative effort and our cultural re-awakening mad persist for a long time. “The National Book Week," he continued,” has been set aside to bring home to the public the essence and importance of books in our daily lives."
2.3 Book Week Committee Members
(i) Mr. A. G. T. Ofori Chairman
(ii) Mr. Atukwei Okai Member
(iii) Nana Kwaku Mensah Member
(iv) Mr. E. B. 0doi-Anim. Member
(v) Mrs. Euphemia Asmah Member
(vi) Mr. N. K. Adzakey .. Member
(vii) Mr. A. P. K. Adzaho Secretary
2.4 Book Exhibition
A Book exhibition which highlighted the activities marking the Book Week was declared open by the Senior Principal Secretary of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Mr. S. E. Arthur, on behalf of the Commissioner on 7th November.
Accra Community Centre.
(i) Ghana Publishing Corporation
(ii) Afram Publications (Ghana) Ltd.
(iii) Sedco Publishing Ltd.
(iv) Ghana Universities Press
(v) Bureau of Ghana Languages
(ii) Curriculum Research and Development Division (Ghana Education Service)
(vii) Oxford University Press
(viii) Cambridge University Press
(ix) Macmillan Education
(x) Minerva Books and Stationery Supplies
(xi) Ghana Bible Society
(xii) University of Ghana Bookshop
(xiii) Information Services Department
(xiv) The British Council
(xv) The Soviet Cultural Centre
(xvi) The Indian High Commission
(xvii) The Australian High Commission.
These were carried out in the forecourt of the Community Centre by participants who had books for sale. About ¢12,000 worth of books were sold. However, sales could have been much higher if participants had been able to order more books from overseas for sale during the exhibition.
Attendance at both the book exhibition and the other evening programmes was not as one would have wished. Interviews with a cross-section of members of the public brought to light why this happened:
(i) the non-availability of books for the public to buy, in the case of the book exhibition;
(ii) inadequate publicity.
The Secretariat of the Ghana Book Development Council has taken note of these comments and is taking measures to improve upon future exhibitions.
Notwithstanding a not-so-good attendance, nearly all the panellists and poets invited to feature in the various evening programmes honoured the invitation. The contributions of these panellists—made up of writers, critics, librarians and publishers—brought into sharp focus the current book situation in Ghana. It was educative.
2.10 Essay Competition
An essay competition on the topic “Books in my Life” was organised at three levels—secondary, sixth form and university—in connection with the Book Week. Prize-winners at the University level were:
1st: Robert Yebo (University of Ghana, Legon)
2nd: S. H. Mills (University of Ghana, Legon)
3rd: Theodore Ocansey (University of Cape Coast).
The competition at the secondary and sixth form levels was cancelled because entries received were not representative enough and some Regions did not submit any entries in view of the short notice given.
2.11 Ghana Book Award
For the first time in the history of the country, the Ghana Book Award was instituted by the Ghana Book Development Council. The aim of this award is to recognise and reward the author's contribution to the literary development of the nation and to encourage him to achieve more. The award is also meant to serve as a source of inspiration to the budding writer. It is hoped that the awards will cover the entire book sector of the country—authors, publishers, printers, booksellers, librarians and book illustrators and designers in future. For the first award, however, only authors of the pre-independence period were considered. After three sittings a Book Award Committee which was appointed to select deserving recipients selected twenty award winners comprising eleven living and nine dead authors.
2.12 The sole criterion for the selection of the award recipients was Quality
The setting up of a National Board to publish the newspapers was expected to be discussed by the Executive Board of the Ghana Book Development Council.
3. Research into the Reading Habits of Ghanaians
3.1 Another subject which engaged the attention of the Ghana Book Development Council was the reading habits of Ghanaians. What material do different Ghanaian age-groups and occupations read generally and why? How could their tastes be influenced into other positive areas? To find answers to these questions the Ghana Book Development Council requested the Department of Library and Archival Studies, University of Ghana, Legon in view of its expertise in this field to conduct a research into the subject on its behalf. The objective of the research, which is expected to be started in 1978, is to encourage the average Ghanaian to read more and read widely.
4. International Book Fairs
4.1 Between August and October, 1977, the Executive Director of the Ghana Book Development Council, Mr. S. A. A. Djoleto, paid visits to a number of countries. In Kenya he studied mainly the operations of the Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. In Singapore he attended the Festival of Books and learnt about the operation of the National Book Development Council there. He then went on to Paris to attend a conference on National Bibliographies, and to London as guest of the British Council to acquaint himself with developments within the British book sector. After a three-week stay, he left for Frankfurt to lead Ghana's delegation to the Frankfurt Book Fair. His trips were jointly sponsored by the Commonwealth Secretariat, the British Council and the Ghana Government.
4.2 The Book Development Officer (Promotion), Mr. A. P. K. Adzaho, also attended the Singapore Festival of Books in August.
4.3. Mr. D. A. Nimako, Principal Book Development Officer, was in Frankfurt in October to attend the Book Fair. Unfortunately, owing to late administrative approval of his trip, Ghana was unable to participate fully in the Fair. (For details on the Frankfurt Book Fair see Executive Director's Report on his overseas tours.)
4.4 At the request of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the Ghana Book Development Council dispatched books on culture and the Creative Arts by Ghanaian authors to London for an itinerant Book Fair organised by the Secretariat in July, 1977.